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It mainly includes ultra precision turning, mirror grinding and grinding. In ultra precision lathe, micro turning is carried out with single crystal diamond turning tool after fine grinding. The cutting thickness is only about 1 micron. It is often used to process high precision and smooth surface parts of non-ferrous metal materials, such as spherical, aspheric and flat mirrors. For example, the aspheric mirror with a diameter of 800mm used in nuclear fusion equipment can be processed with a maximum accuracy of 0.1 μ m and a surface roughness of rz0.05 μm.Free Quote
When the machining accuracy is nanometer or even atomic unit (atomic lattice distance is 0.1-0.2 nanometer), the cutting method can not adapt to it. It needs the help of special machining method, that is, the application of chemical energy, electrochemical energy, thermal energy or electric energy, to make these energies exceed the binding energy between atoms, so as to remove part of the adhesion between atoms on the workpiece surface In order to achieve the goal of ultra precision machining, the combination or lattice deformation. This kind of processing includes mechanical chemical polishing, ion sputtering and ion implantation, electron beam exposure, laser beam processing, metal evaporation and molecular beam epitaxy. The characteristic of these methods is that the amount of material removed or added to the surface layer can be controlled very finely. However, to obtain ultra precision machining accuracy, it still depends on precision machining equipment and precise control system, and uses ultra precision mask as intermediary. For example, in VLSI plate making, electron beam is used to expose the photoresist (see lithography) on the mask to make the atoms of the photoresist polymerize (or decompose) directly under electron impact, and then the polymerized or unpolymerized parts are dissolved by the developer to make the mask. Electron beam exposure plate making requires the positioning accuracy of worktable up to 100% ± 0.01 micron ultra precision machining equipment.
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